Ecology of Freshwaters Earth's Bloodstream 5th Edition

Brian R. Moss

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Description and properties
ISBN9781119239406
AuthorBrian R. Moss
Publication year2018
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
Pages560
Languageanglų kalba
Formatpaperback

The new edition of this established textbook, now with full colour illustration, has been extensively revised and continues to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, readable and authoritative coverage of freshwater habitats, their communities and their functioning, the world over. The work will be of great value to undergraduate and graduate students, fellow researchers and water managers, and the plain language and lack of jargon should make it accessible to anyone interested in the functioning and current state of lakes and rivers.

Having taught and researched over fifty years and six continents, Professor Brian Moss makes here extensive use of his personal experience as well as the huge literature now available on freshwaters. This is the fifth edition of his textbook, which, since the first edition in 1980, has steadily evolved to reflect a rapidly changing science and environment. It places increasing emphasis on the role of people in damaging and managing freshwaters as we move into the Anthropocene epoch and face unprecedented levels of climate and other changes, whilst rejoicing in the fascination of what are left of near pristine freshwater ecosystems.

Professor Moss retired from the University of Liverpool following a career in Africa, the USA and the UK. He was awarded medals by the International Society for Limnology, of which he was President from 2007 to 2013, and The Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management. He was given The Ecology Institute’s Excellence in Ecology Prize in 2009 and the book written for that prize, Liberation Ecology, was awarded the British Ecological Society’s best ecology book prize in 2013.

TURINYS

Preface: why?xiii1 The world as it was and the world as it is1(17)

1.1 Early ecological history

1(4)

1.2 The more recent past

5(2)

1.3 Characteristics of freshwater organisms

7(1)

1.4 Freshwater biodiversity

8(3)

1.5 A spanner in the works?

11(3)

1.6 Politics and pollution

14(1)

1.7 On the nature of textbooks

15(2)

1.8 Further reading

17(1)2 Early evolution and diversity of freshwater organisms18(20)

2.1 Introduction

18(1)

2.2 The freshwater biota

19(1)

2.3 Bacteria

20(2)

2.4 The variety of bacteria

22(2)

2.5 Viruses

24(1)

2.6 Two sorts of cells

25(2)

2.7 The diversity of microbial eukaryotes

27(1)

2.8 Algae

28(2)

2.9 Kingdoms of eukaryotes

30(7)

2.10 Further reading

37(1)3 Diversity continued: multicellular organisms in freshwaters38(20)

3.1 Introduction

38(1)

3.2 Osmoregulation

38(1)

3.3 Reproduction, resting stages and aestivation

39(2)

3.4 Getting enough oxygen

41(1)

3.5 Insects

41(1)

3.6 Big animals, air-breathers and swamps

42(2)

3.7 Dispersal among freshwaters

44(2)

3.8 Patterns in freshwater diversity

46(3)

3.9 Fish faunas

49(2)

3.10 The fish of Lake Victoria

51(2)

3.11 Overall diversity in freshwaters

53(3)

3.12 Environmental DNA

56(1)

3.13 Further reading

57(1)4 Water: a remarkable unremarkable substance58(13)

4.1 Introduction

58(1)

4.2 The molecular properties of water and their physical consequences

59(1)

4.3 Melting and evaporation

60(1)

4.4 How much water is there and where is it?

61(1)

4.5 Patterns in hydrology

62(4)

4.6 Bodies of water and their temperatures

66(4)

4.7 An overview of mixing patterns

70(1)

4.8 Viscosity of water and fluid dynamics

71(2)

4.9 Diffusion

73(1)

4.10 Further reading

735 Water as a habitat: some background water chemistry71(13)

5.1 Introduction

74(1)

5.2 Polar and covalent compounds

74(1)

5.3 The atmosphere

75(1)

5.4 Carbon dioxide

76(1)

5.5 Major ions

77(4)

5.6 The big picture

81(2)

5.7 Further reading

83(1)6 Key nutrients, trace elements and organic matter84(24)

6.1 Introduction

84(1)

6.2 Concepts of limiting substances

85(1)

6.3 Experiments on nutrient limitation

86(5)

6.4 Nutrient supply and need

91(1)

6.5 Phosphorus

91(1)

6.6 Nitrogen

92(1)

6.7 Pristine concentrations

93(3)

6.8 Trace elements and silicon

96(2)

6.9 Organic substances

98(3)

6.10 Substance budgets and movements

101(3)

6.11 Sediment-water relationships

104(2)

6.12 Further reading

106(2)7 Light thrown upon the waters108(10)

7.1 Light

108(1)

7.2 Effects of the atmosphere

109(1)

7.3 From above to under the water

110(4)

7.4 Remote sensing

114(2)

7.5 Further reading

116(2)8 Headwater streams and rivers118(36)

8.1 Introduction

118(1)

8.2 General models of stream ecosystems

118(3)

8.3 The basics of stream flow

121(1)

8.4 Flow and discharge

122(1)

8.5 Laminar and turbulent flow

122(2)

8.6 Particles carried

124(1)

8.7 The response of stream organisms to shear stress

125(1)

8.8 Community composition in streams

126(1)

8.9 Algal and plant communities

127(1)

8.10 Macroinvertebrates

128(4)

8.11 Streams in different climates: the polar and alpine zones

132(2)

8.12 Invertebrates of kryal streams

134(1)

8.13 Food webs in cold streams

135(2)

8.14 Stream systems in the cold-temperate zone

137(2)

8.15 Allochthonous sources of energy

139(1)

8.16 Stream orders

140(1)

8.17 The river continuum concept

141(1)

8.18 Indirectly, wolves are stream animals too

142(1)

8.19 Scarcity of nutrients

143(1)

8.20 Warm-temperate streams

144(3)

8.21 Desert streams

147(1)

8.22 Tropical streams

148(4)

8.23 Further reading

152(2)9 Uses, misuses and restoration of headwater streams and rivers154(31)

9.1 Traditional use of headwater river systems

154(2)

9.2 Deforestation

156(1)

9.3 Acidification

157(5)

9.4 Eutrophication

162(1)

9.5 Commercial afforestation

163(1)

9.6 Settlement

164(2)

9.7 Engineering impacts

166(2)

9.8 Alterations of the fish community and introduced species

168(2)

9.9 Sewage and toxic pollution and their treatment

170(4)

9.10 Diffuse pollution

174(2)

9.11 River monitoring

176(1)

9.12 The Water Framework Directive

177(1)

9.13 Implementation of the Directive

178(2)

9.14 Restoration and rehabilitation ecology

180(3)

9.15 Further reading

183(2)10 Rich systems: floodplain rivers185(31)

10.1 Introduction

185(2)

10.2 From an erosive river to a depositional one

187(1)

10.3 Submerged plants

188(2)

10.4 Growth of submerged plants

190(3)

10.5 Methods of measuring the primary productivity of submerged plants

193(1)

10.6 Enclosure methods

194(1)

10.7 Other methods

195(1)

10.8 Submerged plants and the river ecosystem

196(1)

10.9 Farther downstream: swamps and floodplains

196(2)

10.10 Productivity of swamps and floodplain marshes

198(1)

10.11 Swamp soils and the fate of the high primary production

199(1)

10.12 Oxygen supply and soil chemistry in swamps

200(2)

10.13 Emergent plants and flooded soils

202(2)

10.14 Swamp and marsh animals

204(1)

10.15 Whitefish and blackfish

205(1)

10.16 Latitudinal differences in floodplains

206(1)

10.17 Polar floodplains

207(1)

10.18 Cold-temperate floodplains

208(1)

10.19 Warm-temperate floodplains

209(2)

10.20 Tropical floodplains

211(1)

10.21 The Sudd

212(3)

10.22 Further reading

215(1)11 Floodplains and human affairs216(26)

11.1 Introduction

216(2)

11.2 Floodplain services

218(2)

11.3 Floodplain fisheries

220(2)

11.4 Floodplain swamps and human diseases

222(4)

11.5 Case studies: the Pongola River

226(5)

11.6 River and floodplain management and rehabilitation

231(1)

11.7 Mitigation: plant bed management in rivers

231(3)

11.8 Enhancement

234(2)

11.9 Rehabilitation

236(2)

11.10 Inter-basin transfers and water needs

238(2)

11.11 Further reading

240(2)12 Lakes and other standing waters242(38)

12.1 Introduction

242(2)

12.2 The origins of lake basins

244(4)

12.3 Lake structure

248(6)

12.4 The importance of the catchment area

254(1)

12.5 Lakes as autotrophic or heterotrophic systems

255(3)

12.6 The continuum of lakes

258(5)

12.7 Lake history

263(4)

12.8 Organic remains

267(2)

12.9 General problems of interpretation of evidence from sediment cores

269(1)

12.10 Two ancient lakes

270(1)

12.11 Younger lakes

271(5)

12.12 Filling in

276(2)

12.13 Summing-up

278(1)

12.14 Further reading

278(2)13 The communities of shallow standing waters: mires, shallow lakes and the littoral zone280(24)

13.1 Introduction

280(1)

13.2 What determines the nature of mires and littoral zones?

280(1)

13.3 Temperature

281(1)

13.4 Nutrients

282(4)

13.5 Littoral communities in lakes

286(2)

13.6 The structure of littoral communities

288(3)

13.7 Periphyton

291(1)

13.8 Heterotrophs among the plants

292(3)

13.9 Neuston

295(1)

13.10 Linkages, risks and insurances among the littoral communities

296(1)

13.11 Latitude and littorals

297(2)

13.12 The role of the nekton

299(2)

13.13 Further reading

301(3)14 Plankton communities of the pelagic zone304(1)14.1 Kitchens and toilets304(48)

14.2 Phytoplankton and sinking

306(3)

14.3 Photosynthesis and growth of phytoplankton

309(1)

14.4 Net production and growth

310(1)

14.5 Nutrient uptake and growth rates of phytoplankton

311(1)

14.6 Distribution of freshwater phytoplankton

312(2)

14.7 Washout

314(1)

14.8 Cyanobacterial blooms

314(5)

14.9 Heterotrophs in the plankton: viruses and bacteria

319(1)

14.10 The microbial pathway

320(1)

14.11 Zooplankton

321(3)

14.12 Grazing

324(4)

14.13 Feeding and grazing rates of zooplankton

328(1)

14.14 Competition and predation among grazers

328(2)

14.15 Predation on zooplankters by invertebrates

330(3)

14.16 Fishes in the open-water community

333(2)

14.17 Predation on the zooplankton and fish production

335(3)

14.18 Avoidance of vertebrate predation by the zooplankton

338(2)

14.19 Piscivores and piscivory

340(1)

14.20 Functioning of the open-water community

340(2)

14.21 Polar lakes

342(1)

14.22 Cold-temperate lakes

343(3)

14.23 Warm-temperate lakes

346(1)

14.24 Very warm lakes in the tropics

347(2)

14.25 Further reading

349(3)15 The profundal zone and carbon storage352(19)

15.1 The end of the line

352(1)

15.2 The importance of oxygen

353(3)

15.3 Profundal communities

356(1)

15.4 Biology of selected benthic invertebrates

357(2)

15.5 What the sediment-living detritivores really eat

359(2)

15.6 Influence of the open-water community on the profundal benthos

361(4)

15.7 Sediment storage and the global carbon cycle

365(5)

15.8 Further reading

370(1)16 Fisheries in standing waters371(35)

16.1 Some general principles

371(1)

16.2 Some basic fish biology

372(1)

16.3 Eggs

372(2)

16.4 Feeding

374(1)

16.5 Breeding

375(4)

16.6 Choice of fish for a fishery

379(1)

16.7 Measurement of fish production

379(2)

16.8 Growth measurement

381(2)

16.9 Fish production and commercial fisheries in lakes

383(4)

16.10 Changes in fisheries: a case study

387(3)

16.11 The East African Great Lakes

390(5)

16.12 Fish culture

395(5)

16.13 Stillwater angling

400(3)

16.14 Amenity culture and the aquarium trade

403(2)

16.15 Further reading

405(1)17 The uses, abuses and restoration of standing waters406(34)

17.1 Introduction

406(2)

17.2 Services provided by standing waters

408(1)

17.3 Domestic water supply, eutrophication and reservoirs

409(1)

17.4 Eutrophication-nutrient pollution

410(5)

17.5 Dams and reservoirs

415(3)

17.6 Fisheries in new lakes

418(1)

17.7 Effects downstream of the new lake

419(1)

17.8 New tropical lakes and human populations

419(1)

17.9 Man-made tropical lakes, the balance of pros and cons

419(2)

17.10 Amenity and conservation

421(3)

17.11 The alternative states model

424(2)

17.12 Ponds

426(1)

17.13 Restoration approaches for standing waters: symptom treatment

426(2)

17.14 Treatment of proximate causes: nutrient control

428(2)

17.15 Present supplies of phosphorus, their relative contributions and how they are related to the algal crop

430(1)

17.16 Methods available for reducing total phosphorus loads

430(4)

17.17 In-lake methods

434(1)

17.18 Complications for phosphorus control-sediment sources

434(1)

17.19 Nitrogen reduction

435(1)

17.20 Habitat creation

436(2)

17.21 Further reading

438(2)18 Climate change and the future of freshwaters440(43)

18.1 Introduction

440(2)

18.2 Climate change

442(2)

18.3 Existing effects of freshwaters

444(5)

18.4 Future effects

449(4)

18.5 Future effects on freshwaters

453(4)

18.6 Switches and feedbacks

457(7)

18.7 Wicked problems

464(4)

18.8 Mitigation of global warming

468(1)

18.9 The remedy of ultimate causes

468(6)

18.10 Rewilding the world

474(3)

18.11 Reforming governments

477(2)

18.12 Further reading

479(4)References483(32)Index515

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